Terminology


General Terminology

  • Aikido: The way of harmony.
  • O-Sensei: Great teacher, used to refer to the founder Ueshiba Morihei.
  • Uke: One who receives the throw.
  • Nage: One who throws or a throw.
  • Kamae: Stance assumed when facing an opponent.
  • Ma-ai: The combative distance, or proper distance between two partners depending on height and weapons.
  • Ai Hamni: Mutual or harmonious stance, where both partners have the same  foot forward.
  • Gyaku Hamni: Reverse or inharmonious stance, where partners have opposite feet forward.
  • Seiza: Correct or calm sitting. Classical Japanese martial arts sitting on knees. (straight, inactive toes).
  • Sabaki: Foot work.
  • Tenkan: Turning movement used to dissipate force.
  • Omote: Forwards.
  • Ura: Backwards or behind.
  • Ukemi: Falling techniques including rolls (Yoko) and break falls (Tobi).
  • Hara: Point below navel which is the body’s approximate center of gravity, point of focus in Aikido.
  • Ki: Vital energy, usually demonstrated through subtle yet efficient use of body mechanics.
  • Atemi: Defensive strike used to stun your opponent so a technique can be effectively applied.
  • Tengatana: Sword hand, used for both parrying and striking based on sword principles.
  • Randori: Training utilizing multiple opponents.
  • Dojo: Training hall.
  • Bokken or Bokuto: Wooden sword used for training.
  • Jo: A wooden staff that is slightly longer in length than a Japanese long sword and about 1 1/4 inches in diameter, whose methodology utilizes both staff and sword techniques.

Basic Aikido Techniques

  • Ikkyo: First movement, first principle, first pinning technique.
  • Nikyo: Second pinning technique.
  • Sankyo: Third pinning technique.
  • Yonkyo: Fourth pinning technique.
  • Gokyo: Fifth pinning technique.
  • Shiho-Nage: Four directions throw/pin (1st pillar of Aikido throws).
  • Kote-Gaishi: Wrist turning throw/pin.
  • Kokyu-Nage: “Breath” throw.
  • Irimi-Nage: Entering throw, 20 year technique (2nd pillar).
  • Kaiten-Nage: Open and turn throw, “wheel throw” (3rd pillar).
  • Sumi-Otoshi: Corner drop throw.
  • Kiri-Otoshi: Cutting throw.
  • Juji-Nage: Crossed arms throw.
  • Hukiage: Wind up the mountain throw.
  • Koshi-Nage: Hip throw.

Basic Aikido Attack

Tachi Waza Standing techniques.

  • Mae Seme Attacks from the front.
    1. Katate katate dori: Single wrist grab with one hand.
    2. Katate mune dori: Chest grab with one hand.
    3. Katate kata dori: Shoulder grab with one hand.
    4. Ryote katate dori: Single wrist grab with two hands.
    5. Ryote ryote dori: Both wrist grab with two hands.
    6. Ryote mune dori: Chest grab with two hands.
    7. Ryote mune ude dori: Lapel choke with two hands.
    8. Shomen uchi: Downward strike to head.
    9. Yokomen uchi: Sidewards strike to head or neck.
    10. Tsuki: Thrusting punch.
  • Ushiro Seme Attacks from the rear.
    11. Katate mune dori: One hand grabs chest, one hand grabs wrist.
    12. Eri dori: Collar grab single hand.
    13. Kubi shime: Two handed choke.
    14. Ryote dori: Both wrist grab with two hands.
    15. Ryo Kata dori: Both shoulder grab with two hands.

Suwari Waza Kneeling techniques

16. Katate katate dori: Single wrist grab with one hand.
17. Ryote dori: Both wrist grab with two hands.
18. Shomen uchi: Downward strike to head.

  Hamni Hadachi Opponent (uke) standing, defender (nage) kneeling techniques.

 19. Katate katate tori: Single wrist grab with one hand.

Basic Etiquette

  • Onegai Shimasu request to train together (at beginning of class with kneeling bow)
  •  Arigato Gozaimashta thanks for training (at end of class with kneeling bow)

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